1. Impaired myocardial function: an extensive acute myocardial infarction (> 40%), right ventricular infarction, arteriosklerotik heart disease, cardiomyopathy.
2. Mechanical: Mitral regurgitation, aortic regurgitation, septal rupture interventrikuler, anurisma massif ventricle, atrium stenosis, mitral stenosis, left atrial thrombus, pericarditis or pleural pericardium.
3. Arrhythmia: bradiaritmia, takhiaritmia
Sign And Symtomps
1. Changes in mental status (decreased perfusion cerebri): confusion, disorientation, anxiety and restlessness.
2. Pale, cool, moist (vasoconstriction and hypoperfusion)
3. Tachycardi / bradicardy.
4. Jugular venous distension.
5. Oliguria, urine production of less than 20 ml / hour.
6. Takhypnea, dyspnea
8. Pulmonary edema
Decreased left ventricular function resulting in decreased ability of the left ventricle to pump blood, causing a decrease in stroke volume and cardiac output and blood pressure. Decrease in cardiac output resulting in decreased perfusion to the peripheral terjdinya and reduced supply of O2 to the tissues resulting in vital organ dysfunction such as brain, kidney and heart problems that occur in mental status, decreased urine production, and other cardiac arrhythmias.
The decrease in stroke volume will increase the end left ventricular diastolic pressure (LVEDP) and result in increased pressure in the left atrium and pulmonary veins. These conditions increase the hydrostatic pressure in the pulmonary veins, causing the occurrence of pulmonary edema which would interfere with gas exchange and tissue hypoxia.